Water and energy consumption are strongly linked. In order to have the adequate quantity and pressure of water in our households, water must be pumped from a reservoir to a treatment plant and then to a distribution system. This is a highly energy consuming process. For utilities, energy consumption is usually a major item of expenditure. The water sector consumes up to 4% of the worldwide electricity generation. Water supply systems are responsible for around 40% of this consumption, 80% of which is accounted for pumping systems [1,2]. Inadequate calibration and aging of equipment result in energy losses, which can lead to a significant decrease of the pumping system’s efficiency and increase the energy costs for utilities. This lays out significant potential for energy and cost efficiency improvement and, at the same time, for reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Climate change is not the only challenge for the water management in Jordan. With one of the lowest levels of water availability per capita, Jordan is among the most water-scare countries in the world [3]. Water scarcity and meeting the demand for water supply are major problems the country faces nowadays. The circumstances will be aggravated in the future due to population growth, refugee influx and economic development, which will increase the water demand.  Moreover, the depth of the groundwater reservoirs and the large distances to end-consumers, make pumping systems and transport of water the most energy intensive processes, representing around 14% of the country’s overall energy consumption.

The company Miyahuna operates the water supply system in the city of Madaba. Aiming to face the growing challenges of water demand and seeking co-benefits in climate change mitigation and adaptation, the project WaCCliM (Water and Wastewater Companies for Climate Mitigation) assists the water company in the look of opportunities for energy, costs and GHG reduction measures.

A baseline study was conducted to identify opportunities for GHG and energy reduction using ECAM (Energy Performance and Carbon Emissions Assessment and Monitoring), a tool that enables utilities to quantifiy their carbon footprint. The results showed that the energy consumption of the pumping system for water supply is the highest energy consumer and GHG emission source, with approximately 27,250,000 kWh/year and the related GHG emissions around 17,547,000 kgCO2eq/year.

Improvement scenarios for the pumping system were analysed using ECAM. As shown in Fig.1, the impact of installing new pumps would save up more than 650,000 MWh/year, resulting in the avoidance of more than 400,000 kgCO2eq/year.

Fig. 1. Energy savings and avoidance of CO2 emissions in Miyahuna, Madaba, Jordan

After analysing the benefits, the company decided to improve the pumping system by installing six new horizontal centrifugal pumps, three of them (400m³/hour/60m) with motor power equal to 110 kW, and the remaining three (400m³/hour/200m) with motor power equal to 355 kW. The new pumps installed in Miyahuna are energy efficient and controlled by Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) to maximize the energetic and economic savings (Fig. 2). The first readings since July 2019 show that the monthly energy consumption has decreased by more than 40% when comparing to the same months in 2018, and energy costs were reduced by almost half.

Fig. 2. Comparison between former and new pumping system ©MIYAHUNA


This initiative helped the company to:

The company Miyahuna has not only improved the energy efficiency in its system, but has adopted a low-carbon, climate-friendly policy and is now a leader of carbon-neutral water utilities.



  1. World Energy Outlook (2016): Water-Energy Nexus. International Energy Agency. https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/WorldEnergyOutlook2016ExcerptWaterEnergyNexus.pdf
  2. Coelho, B.; Andrade-Campos, A (2014): Efficiency achievement in water supply systems–A review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 30, 59–84.
  3. World Health Organization (WHO) (2019): Jordan: Water is life. https://www.who.int/heli/pilots/jordan/en/

In the state of Guanajuato in Mexico, two water utilities in San Francisco del Rincón and Purísima del Rincón participated between 2014 and 2018 as pilot utilities in an innovative approach to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through improved efficiency of water and wastewater treatment services.

The urban water cycle in Mexico accounts for up to 5% of the total GHG emissions in the country. In order to reduce their emissions and to save costs at the same time, the two utilities pioneered implementation of the Roadmap to a Low-Carbon Urban Water Utility in Mexico. SAPAF (Sistema de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado de San Francisco) operates the utility that is responsible for the water supply and sewage collection in San Francisco del Rincón, while SITRATA (Servicio de Tratamiento y Deposición de Aguas Residuales) is responsible for operating the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) shared by the two municipalities. Together, they applied the roadmap developed by the Water and Wastewater Companies for Climate Mitigation (WaCCliM) project, a joint initiative by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH and the International Water Association (IWA). It focuses on mitigation and also helps raise awareness to ensure that water utilities play an active role in reducing their carbon footprint instead of merely adapting to the consequences of climate change.

Diego Dávila (left), Director of SITRATA, describing aspects of the biogas storage unit to the personnel of other WWTPs in the state of Guanajuato; Photo: © Jürgen Baumann

Diego Dávila (left), Director of SITRATA, describing aspects of the biogas storage unit to the personnel of other WWTPs in the state of Guanajuato; Photo: © Jürgen Baumann

As part of the roadmap, an initial baseline assessment of the two utilities identified untreated wastewater as the main source of GHG emissions in the urban water cycle. Consequently, SAPAF constructed collectors to increase the wastewater treatment coverage, thus avoiding 2,500 tonnes CO2-eq per year, which is equivalent to the annual emissions of 830 compact cars per yearand represents a reduction of 40% of the total emissions in their operation area.

The increased wastewater received by the common wastewater treatment plant posed a new challenge to SITRATA, which had to treat a larger volume without access to additional funds. To overcome this problem, the utility focused on two aspects: optimising the aeration process and improving biogas production to generate electricity for internal consumption. SITRATA managed to reduce the energy consumption per cubic meter treated by approximately 10% and produces 155,000 kWh annually through its cogeneration system using the methane generated in the anaerobic sludge digestion process; work is ongoing to increase this amount.

Cogeneration system in the San Gerónimo WWTP operated by SITRATA; Photo: © Andrés Rojo

Cogeneration system in the San Gerónimo WWTP operated by SITRATA; Photo: © Andrés Rojo

Following the lead of SAPAF and SITRATA, the utility in Moroleón, SMAPAM (Sistema Municipal de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado Moroleon), has also started to implement the WaCCliM approach. Efficiency measures in the water supply system have already led to a reduction of 6% in the electricity SMAPAM consumes for pumping. This includes replacing the least efficient pumps in the system and implementing programmes to reduce water consumption by the population, thus leading to less water needing to be pumped and as a result water and energy being conserved. The next step for the utility is to identify and reduce water losses in the distribution system, which are directly related to high energy consumption. WaCCliM is supporting the analysis of water losses and modelling of the distribution network.

In the neighbouring state of Querétaro, assessment studies on pumping stations supported by the WaCCliM project have led the State Water Commission of Querétaro to allocate 2 million pesos (approx. EUR 100,000) to implementing measures to enhance the efficiency of the pumping stations. In Chihuahua, a state located in the north of Mexico, the utility in Parral has also showed great interest in the WaCCliM approach. After an initial energy performance evaluation supported by the WaCCliM project and the renovation of some of its equipment, the utility is using its own funds to continue with additional studies, including the modelling of the distribution network and identification of possible points to optimise in the operating system.

These success stories in Mexico will encourage other water and wastewater utilities to contribute to climate change mitigation while improving service levels and reducing operational costs.


This article was originally published on the International Climate Initiative website.

1The number of cars was determined using the emission factor of CO2 (g/km) per car model, assuming that a car travels a total of 15,000 km per year. A mean emission value of nearly 3 tonnes/car per year was calculated. http://www.ecovehiculos.gob.mx/ecovehiculos/ (in Spanish)

By Simone Ballard. During the forum, there were several key takeaway messages for future directions in strategy and mobilisation. Cooperation, co-creation, and cross-sectoral engagement are critical components of successfully taking progressive action plans forward. The water-energy-food (WEF) nexus will be taking a priority spot in shaping the mitigation and adaption strategies of the future.

Opening the scene: Brasilia

The 8th World Water Forum took place in Brasilia and was an action-packed week of sessions circulating around fresh ideas in the water sector. The main theme focused around nature-based solutions, an emerging approach which uses ecosystem-related, holistic, and natural approaches to solve the world’s water issues. The high-profile international event focuses on key issues in the water sector, many of which are amplified by relevant current water events that have made headlines. These global events include sustained drought in the Middle East with little to no relief, and a dramatic and ongoing struggle with water availability in Cape Town, which witnessed great stress on water utilities and their dependent communities. It is clear that current systems are not fully prepared to deal with new changes in water availability. This set the tone for the World Water Forum 8, catalysing momentum for co-creating a better water management future.

Priorities of the future

During the forum, there were several key takeaway messages for future directions in strategy and mobilisation. Cooperation, co-creation, and cross-sectoral engagement are critical components of successfully taking progressive action plans forward. Likewise, the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus will be taking a priority spot in shaping the mitigation and adaption strategies of the future. As the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are also being carried forward into existing and new plans, these broad global initiatives are developing into policy initiatives and actions on-the-ground. The question remains, how do essential water sector players, such as water and wastewater utilities (WWUs), get involved in the progress?

What about water and wastewater utilities?

How do the many calls for action coming from the forum affect WWUs, which provide essential water services on a local level? For one thing, many people do not realise that the urban water sector has a key role to play in the Global Climate Agenda. The urban water sector contributes to 5% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cross-sectoral approaches such as the WEF nexus are relevant to explore synergies and implications of climate actions among sectors. Considering the relationship between water use for energy generation and energy use for water services is a key in nexus approaches. Therefore, the urban water sector is also presented with a unique opportunity to make a large impact towards reducing global GHG emissions and accelerating the global climate agenda forward.

Why would WWUs be interested in doing this? As the recent global water events have shown earlier, rise in floods, droughts and other types of extreme weather events are motivation to make the systems more resilient. This means that business-as-usual (BAU) does not necessarily cut it anymore in terms of meeting service performance while becoming more resilient to a shifting climate. GHG reduction measures can be achieved by working with WWUs in developing and emerging economies, where emissions are among the highest due to a large consumption of energy and the portion of untreated or poorly treated sewage. Utilities will need to become “climate smart” for an uncertain future.

Shifting Climate, Shifting Minds

WWUs have the means and motivation to become key players in the global climate agenda, in fact, GHG reductions in the urban water sector could significantly assist in meeting country’s Nationally Determined Contributions, which are reduction commitments under the Paris Agreement critical in keeping our planet below additional average warming of 1.5 degrees Celsius. There is under-recognized potential for nexus approaches here, and all it takes to begin this transition is a shift to a low carbon mind-set, both from within and outside the industry, to see the challenges to the water sector also as opportunities. Below we explore how this mind-set shift can be applied to WWU, improving their service performance and simultaneously contributing to meeting the global goals of the Paris Agreement and 2030 Agenda going forward.

1. Redefining the problem

Water and energy are inseparably linked, in a relationship known as the energy-water nexus, a key relationship of the WEF nexus. It takes energy to pump, treat, and deliver water, while it takes water to generate most traditional forms of energy. Energy consumption generates GHG emissions, and these accelerate climate change. Simultaneously, 80% of wastewater generated in the world is still discharged untreated or improperly into sewers and receiving waters, which can also contribute significantly to GHG emissions via the chemical release of methane. Therefore, the global water sector has both a stake and a responsibility in taking on climate mitigation.


2. The utility perspective

From the utility’s perspective, their primary concern is service performance. Since water is essential for life, the tap simply cannot stop running, especially as our cities expand globally. Therefore, utilities can only engage in activities which help them meet their service requirements and are financially within their reach. Progress can only be made when ideas for improvement are practical and assist the utility’s mission. Fortunately there are many such solutions that can be implemented, as discussed next.

3. Solving global problems with local initiative

What starts to become clear, is that utilities can take on improvement projects, which make progress towards solving their critical challenges, while also lowering their GHG emissions from BAU. Solutions which are in line with this mind-set shift can help illuminate the opportunities created on the path to a more stable future. Solutions such as: increasing pump efficiency, pressure management systems, pipe infrastructure, shifting the energy grid matrix and more, are all in line with achieving a higher utility capacity and assisting climate mitigation. There are also emergent measures such as biogas valorisation, which can assist in both offsetting emissions and recovering energy. There is even the potential for reuse of captured water and nutrients towards agriculture, making progress towards the optimal WEF nexus and circular economy. In fact, a project has already begun to inspire utilities in the transition to becoming “climate smart”, as described below.

4. WaCCliM & the pioneers

The “Water and Wastewater Companies for Climate Mitigation” (WaCCliM) project began initiation of this mind-set shift and implementation of improvement measures with four pilot utilities: in Jordan, Peru, Mexico, Thailand. WaCCliM is a joint initiative between the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) and the International Water Association (IWA). This project is part of the International Climate Initiative (IKI). The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag. Read more about the pilot countries here.

In Mexico, the country has committed to reducing 25% of its current emissions, with the potential to increase this to 40% over time. The pilot utilities implemented measures to reduce their energy consumption and increase wastewater treatment, both of which have avoided over 2,500 t CO2 emissions per year, or the same amount as 650 individuals in Mexico.

Further south in Peru, one water and sanitation company alone has reduced its emissions by 20% after participation in WaCCliM, reducing 5,300 t COe per year using measures such as biogas use. Later, they have ambitions to turn this biogas into electricity for their own use through cogeneration, which can lower their emissions even further. Utilities like this one will be better prepared to adapt to Peru’s Mitigation and Adaptation Plan (PMACC), which is renewed every 5 years as a mandatory national regulation to institute GHG reductions within the water sector.

In a drier part of the world, a Jordanian pilot utility is moving forward with plans to install new pumps this summer, which will increase efficiency and reduce water losses, also lowering their overall emissions. Jordan is dealing with water shortages, and has therefore taken a proactive action at the government level through the “Water Substitution and Reuse Policy,” stating that all water in Jordan must be reused. This will affect all utilities in Jordan, and therefore initiatives like WaCCliM are useful in helping them along this transition.

The potential for further uptake of this project is growing with expansion to other utilities and the solidification of a knowledge platform “Climate Smart Water”, with guiding resources to help kickstart the transition to a holistic and low-carbon mind-set for future utility projects.

5. Where do we go from here?

As the World Water Forum demonstrated, the need is pressing now for new solutions to a sector facing new challenges. The directions are promising in both nature-based solutions and finding innovative solutions through new initiatives such as WaCCliM. The challenge for each key player in the water sector is to embark on a mind-set shift that can illuminate new directions and opportunities for cooperation and growth. As global climate issues accelerate, so too do the solutions needed to address those challenges and innovate for the better.


This article was originally published on the Nexus – The Water, Energy and Food Security Resource Platform.